What is Sociological Theory?

What is Sociological Theory? That’s a really hard question and one that admits multiple answers (see, e.g. Abend 2008). Let’s try a much easier question: What is Sociological Theory? That is, what do people talk about when writing in the journal Sociological Theory? Perhaps answering this question can shed some light on the more general, harder question.

Using Neal Caren’s handy-dandy RefCliq, I analyzed all of the articles in Sociological Theory from about 1994 to present (those available through the Web of Science), a total of 349 articles. The algorithm with default settings detected 16 citation communities, but a few of these seem to be generated by just a couple of articles citing a lot of the same works, so I increased the minimum citation count from two to three which reduced the number of communities to 10 and the number of cited works to about 1100 (from 2700). Each cluster is identified by a set of keywords from the abstracts and titles of the articles that cite the references in the cluster.

I like these subfield/single-journal analyses a lot, as they get into pretty specific clusters. For example, the first cluster is Bourdieu/agency discussions with a hint of critical realism. Very straightforward. The second cluster is one of two methodology / post-positivism / STS communities – bridging methodological debates within sociology and STS reflections on the nature of knowledge and science. Interestingly, in the larger 16 cluster model, there were two methodology/STS clusters – one more methodological, one more STS, which makes sense. Here they are collapsed together. Alexander, Habermas and the public sphere get a cluster. I especially like the cluster with Ann Swidler’s culture in action at its center – it’s mostly a social movements / political soc cluster! So, cultural approaches to social movements and politics?

If I were a bit more of a methods person, I think my next step would be to think about how to compare and integrate topic modeling approaches that key off the words within documents with these sorts of citation analysis / community-detection algorithms that key off the network of co-citations to see if the two methods tell similar stories, and if there’s a way to use to make sense of the other. For now though, here’s the output!

UPDATE: Neal Caren went and ran Theory & Society. I followed up with running the combined T&S and ST, all from 1994-2013. One interesting finding from the combined model is which clusters draw from just one of the two journals. E.g. the Markovsky/Willer “theories, performance, status…” cluster is only ST. The Konrad / Hankiss “Elites, circulation…” cluster is only T&S.

EDIT: Apologies for the broken hyperlinks. For the pretty html version of this model with working links, click here.

Cluster analysis of 349 articles based on 1,099 references cited at least 3 times in Sociological Theory.

approach, understanding, change, concept, bourdieu’s, agency, action, his, processes, empirical

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Bourdieu P (1977) Outline Theory Pract 0.18 30 approach, model, cultural, concept, understanding
Bourdieu P (1992) Invitation Reflexive 0.16 30 agency, approach, his, cultural, concept
Dimaggio P (1983) Am Sociol Rev 0.15 13 change, action, processes, organizational, approach
Bourdieu P (1984) Distinction Social C 0.13 29 approach, action, concept, bourdieu, bourdieu’s
Sewell W (1992) Am J Sociol 0.13 33 cultural, understanding, concept, culture, empirical
Bourdieu P (1990) Logic Practice 0.12 26 approach, bourdieu’s, understanding, concept, bourdieu
Berger P (1967) Social Construction 0.06 15 concepts, processes, behavior, concept, socially
Giddens A (1984) Constitution Soc 0.04 18 action, concept, agency, approach, change
Archer M (1995) Realist Social Theor 0.04 9 concept, bourdieu’s, habitus, make, writings
Mouzelis N (1995) Sociological Theory 0.03 11 concept, agency, his, bourdieu, bourdieu’s
Giddens A (1984) Constitution Soc Out 0.03 11 concept, contemporary, empirical, role, relational
Bourdieu P (1986) Hdb Theory Res Socio 0.02 8 concept, historical, alternative, change, american
Emirbayer M (1998) Am J Sociol 0.02 12 agency, concept, action, structure, process
Giddens A (1991) Modernity Self Ident 0.02 10 contemporary, insights, approach, relations, modern
Blumer H (1969) Symbolic Interaction 0.02 17 relations, structures, cultural, agency, his
Bourdieu P (2000) Pascalian Meditation 0.02 9 bourdieu’s, concept, action, agency, his
Meyer J (1977) Am J Sociol 0.01 8 change, organizations, provides, action, institutional
Dimaggio P (1988) I Patterns Org Cultu 0.01 5 change, fields, organizational, institutional, stability
Armstrong E (2002) Forging Gay Identiti 0.01 4 change, contemporary, society, alternative, cultural
Bhaskar R (1979) Possibility Naturali 0.01 9 concept, understanding, them, out, reflexive
Jepperson R (1991) New I Org Anal 0.01 8 change, action, society, symbolic, fields
Joas H (1993) Pragmatism Social Th 0.01 7 his, concept, agency, context, understand
Giddens A (1979) Central Problems Soc 0.01 11 concept, habitus, structures, his, bourdieu’s
Gadamer H (1975) Truth Method 0.01 4 structures, forms, ontological, his, term
Bourdieu P (2001) Masculine Domination 0.01 6 concept, action, itself, political, women’s

science, knowledge, his, rational, action, well, terms, should, theories, concept

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Merton R (1968) Social Theory Social 0.19 21 action, theories, question, problem, sociologists
Weber M (1949) Methodology Social S 0.17 15 his, well, role, understanding, action
Coleman J (1990) Fdn Social Theory 0.17 24 forms, possible, way, interaction, relations
Alexander J (1982) Theoretical Logic So 0.14 19 action, his, concept, society, structures
Somers M (1998) Am J Sociol 0.09 8 first, second, epistemological, explain, forms
Bloor D (1991) Knowledge Social Ima 0.08 6 knowledge, science, scientific, mannheim, writings
Habermas J (1984) Theory Communicative 0.07 22 his, action, terms, level, agency
Steinmetz G (2005) Politics Method Huma 0.06 8 epistemological, second, understanding, highly, cases
Kiser E (1998) Am J Sociol 0.05 5 choice, rational, lack, yet, explain
Parsons T (1951) Social System 0.05 14 well, function, out, his, approach
Fleck L (1979) Genesis Dev Sci Fact 0.05 7 concept, science, agency, knowledge, explain
Habermas J (1987) Theory Communicative 0.05 18 his, action, theories, society, historical
Weber M (1946) M Weber Essays Socio 0.04 13 theories, understanding, action, society, logic
Mannheim K (1952) Essays Sociology Kno 0.04 4 knowledge, scientificity, role, empirical, along
Latour B (1979) Lab Life Social Cons 0.03 4 scientific, science, knowledge, sciences, mannheim
Kuhn T (1970) Structure Sci Revolu 0.03 10 theories, epistemological, empirical, same, concept
Kuhn T (1962) Structure Sci Revolu 0.03 6 science, so, knowledge, empirical, broader
Lynch M (1993) Sci Practice Ordinar 0.03 6 knowledge, science, writings, field, relational
Latour B (1993) We Have Never Been M 0.03 8 science, problem, original, concept, here
Dahrendorf R (1959) Class Class Conflict 0.03 8 concept, economic, important, structure, contributions
Mcdonald T (1996) Hist Turn Human Sci 0.03 4 concept, yet, explain, first, approach
Lakatos I (1970) Criticism Growth Kno 0.02 10 science, theories, should, empirical, alternative
Stinchcombe A (1968) Constructing Social 0.02 10 concept, second, power, others, help
Homans G (1967) Nature Social Sci 0.02 5 science, example, first, should, sociologists
Bauman Z (1993) Postmodern Ethics 0.02 5 society, early, contemporary, forms, combination

political, power, state, cultural, model, politics, contemporary, movements, collective, recent

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Mann M (1986) Sources Social Power 0.17 14 state, political, theories, power, cultural
Bellah R (1985) Habits Heart Individ 0.17 16 public, contemporary, historical, his, political
Skocpol T (1979) States Social Revolu 0.15 15 political, recent, concept, dynamics, cases
Mcadam D (2001) Dynamics Contention 0.12 15 approach, politics, role, change, contemporary
Tilly C (1978) Mobilization Revolut 0.11 13 political, approach, change, american, analytical
Snow D (1988) Int Social Movement 0.10 11 political, movement, movements, action, outcomes
Snow D (1986) Am Sociol Rev 0.09 13 political, approach, public, movement, action
Tarrow S (1994) Power Movement Socia 0.07 14 action, political, cultural, collective, movements
Anderson B (1991) Imagined Communities 0.06 9 perspective, order, institutional, society, historical
Putnam R (2000) Bowling Alone Collap 0.05 11 public, historical, alternative, contemporary, political
Wallerstein I (1974) Modern World System 0.04 10 history, institutional, european, very, forms
Weber M (1978) Ec Soc 0.04 22 concept, suggests, action, rational, approach
Mccarthy J (1977) Am J Sociol 0.03 8 approach, political, movements, historical, society
Gamson W (1975) Strategy Social Prot 0.03 7 political, dynamics, action, existing, broader
Mann M (1993) Sources Social Power 0.03 11 political, order, state, key, development
Mcadam D (1982) Political Process De 0.03 9 approach, political, movements, change, model
Bernstein M (1997) Am J Sociol 0.03 4 conceptions, differences, alternative, issues, around
Berger P (1967) Sacred Canopy Elemen 0.02 6 religious, cultural, religion, religion’s, provides
Mcadam D (1996) Comp Perspectives So 0.02 7 political, concept, outcomes, analyzing, explain
Smelser N (1963) Theory Collective Be 0.02 6 american, recent, concept, writings, occurs
Tilly C (1990) Coercion Capital Eur 0.02 7 political, broader, development, states, modern
Cohen J (1985) Soc Res 0.02 5 approach, movements, recent, model, illustrates
Althusser L (1971) Lenin Philos Other E 0.02 7 culture, understanding, society, cultural, role
Meyer J (1997) Am J Sociol 0.02 9 global, cultural, institutional, processes, state
Foucault M (1978) Hist Sexuality 0.01 6 society, political, develop, concept, contemporary

his, concept, interaction, sociologists, action, context, order, human, way, contemporary

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Goffman E (1959) Presentation Self Ev 0.35 29 action, order, concept, actors, life
Durkheim E (1995) Elementary Forms Rel 0.25 18 action, cultural, suggests, society, historical
Simmel G (1950) Sociology G Simmel 0.19 22 suggests, life, forms, society, his
Goffman E (1967) Interaction Ritual E 0.12 13 interaction, action, well, cultural, collective
Durkheim E (1984) Division Labor Soc 0.09 13 society, durkheim’s, action, his, durkheim
Garfinkel H (1967) Studies Ethnomethodo 0.08 19 order, concept, others, action, context
Durkheim E (1965) Elementary Forms Rel 0.06 15 cultural, contemporary, culture, political, well
Collins R (1981) Am J Sociol 0.06 9 action, interaction, context, groups, particular
Parsons T (1949) Structure Social Act 0.05 10 his, writings, contemporary, concept, relational
Glaser B (1967) Discovery Grounded T 0.05 7 context, life, understanding, action, insights
Lukes S (1973) E Durkheim His Life 0.04 10 durkheim’s, his, durkheim, history, society
Durkheim E (1964) Division Labor Soc 0.04 8 general, history, society, relations, durkheim
Goffman E (1967) Interaction Ritual 0.03 12 concept, order, action, others, would
Wilson W (1987) Truly Disadvantaged 0.03 7 resources, provides, concept, activities, mainstream
Durkheim E (1982) Rules Sociological M 0.03 8 durkheim’s, his, durkheim, society, light
Iannaccone L (1994) Am J Sociol 0.03 3 model, religious, production, modifications, capital
Mead G (1934) Mind Self Soc 0.03 16 theories, action, studies, society, symbolic
Alexander J (2004) Sociol Theor 0.02 8 historical, cultural, collective, broader, public
Collins R (1988) Theoretical Sociolog 0.02 9 upon, contemporary, processes, concerned, concludes
Simmel G (1971) G Simmel Individuali 0.02 10 his, simmel, fundamental, argues, society
Durkheim E (1951) Suicide Study Sociol 0.02 7 action, historical, durkheim’s, his, lack
Taylor C (1989) Sources Self 0.02 7 cultural, concept, public, suggests, useful
Stryker S (2000) Soc Psychol Quart 0.02 6 often, interaction, model, expectations, environment
Goffman E (1983) Am Sociol Rev 0.02 10 concept, order, interaction, goffman, approach
Collins R (2004) Interaction Ritual C 0.02 13 action, historical, performance, explain, actors

cultural, public, political, society, culture, sphere, civil, dominant, his, discourse

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Alexander J (1993) Theor Soc 0.12 17 cultural, public, culture, political, sphere
Habermas J (1989) Structural Transform 0.11 18 public, cultural, action, sphere, political
Kane A (1991) Sociological Theory 0.08 11 cultural, culture, political, public, action
Fraser N (1992) Habermas Public Sphe 0.07 14 public, sphere, political, cultural, culture
Swidler A (1986) Am Sociol Rev 0.05 29 cultural, culture, political, approach, recent
Somers M (1995) Sociol Theor 0.05 15 public, political, cultural, society, sphere
Alexander J (1988) Durkheimian Sociolog 0.05 11 cultural, culture, political, action, society
Calhoun C (1992) Habermas Public Sphe 0.04 14 public, sphere, political, cultural, society
Somers M (1993) Am Sociol Rev 0.04 10 political, public, cultural, sphere, culture
Calhoun C (1995) Critical Social Theo 0.03 14 cultural, critical, society, his, terms
Bellah R (1985) Habits Heart 0.03 6 rather, argues, culture, cultural, life
Anderson B (1983) Imagined Communities 0.02 12 political, role, public, contemporary, sphere
Lamont M (1992) Money Morals Manners 0.02 7 culture, empirical, cultural, studies, mechanisms
Alexander J (2001) Sociol Theor 0.02 3 cultural, society, code, dominant, framework
Lamont M (1992) Cultivating Differen 0.02 6 concept, cultural, culture, public, relationships
Eley G (1992) Habermas Public Sphe 0.02 9 public, sphere, political, society, cultural
Putnam R (1993) Making Democracy Wor 0.02 12 public, political, account, cultural, concept
Jacobs R (1996) Am J Sociol 0.02 8 political, cultural, public, sphere, civil
Calhoun C (1993) Public Culture 0.02 7 public, sphere, political, cultural, habermas’s
Laclau E (1985) Hegemony Socialist S 0.01 6 political, critical, structural, culture, cultural
Alexander J (1992) Cultivating Differen 0.01 9 public, culture, political, cultural, concept
Mouffe C (2000) Democratic Paradox 0.01 4 political, debate, normative, cultural, literature
Bell D (1976) Cultural Contradicti 0.01 3 possible, cultural, subject, theories, example
Bendix R (1978) Kings People Power M 0.01 5 political, state, critical, well, institutional
Rorty R (1979) Philos Mirror Nature 0.01 9 understanding, studies, science, forms, society

theories, models, produce, interaction, relevant, empirical, status, existing, mechanisms, third

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Markovsky B (1988) Am Sociol Rev 0.18 5 theories, issues, processes, limitations, network
Willer D (1987) Theory Expt Investig 0.15 5 theories, being, experiments, types, issues
Yamagishi T (1998) Am J Sociol 0.14 3 mechanisms, produces, negotiated, forms, each
Emerson R (1972) Sociological Theorie 0.12 6 actors, produce, network, exchange, experiments
Cook K (1983) Am J Sociol 0.12 6 network, exchange, forms, actors, produce
Berger J (1977) Status Characteristi 0.10 7 status, performance, existing, expectations, emergence
Molm L (1997) Coercive Power Socia 0.09 4 reciprocal, negotiated, situations, forms, actors
Skvoretz J (1993) Am Sociol Rev 0.06 4 negotiated, forms, network, exchange, mechanisms
Berger J (1974) Expectation States T 0.06 5 emergence, theories, characteristics, performance, status
Gouldner A (1960) Am Sociol Rev 0.06 5 reciprocity, behavior, life, recent, contemporary
Thye S (2000) Am Sociol Rev 0.05 4 hierarchy, yet, group, inequalities, review
Levi-strauss C (1969) Elementary Structure 0.05 6 explain, network, forms, reciprocal, third
Fisek M (1991) Am J Sociol 0.04 4 theories, capacities, construction, emergence, processes
Willer D (1981) Networks Exchange Co 0.03 3 theories, gatekeeper, selection, being, developed
Cook K (1993) Theoretical Res Prog 0.03 3 theories, gatekeeper, selection, being, developed
Weber M (1968) Ec Soc 0.03 13 model, choice, understanding, suggests, process
Heckathorn D (1996) Am Sociol Rev 0.03 4 collective, issues, goods, yet, group
Blau P (1964) Exchange Power Socia 0.03 5 offers, perspective, network, provides, forms
Yamagishi T (1994) Motiv Emotion 0.03 3 mechanisms, trust, produces, four, each
Wagner D (1985) Am J Sociol 0.03 4 empirical, theories, existing, them, develop
Kollock P (1994) Am J Sociol 0.03 3 reciprocal, negotiated, forms, exchanges, network
Webster M (1983) Am J Sociol 0.02 4 developed, discipline, application, situations, competing
Molm L (1994) Soc Psychol Quart 0.01 3 negotiated, forms, network, exchange, mechanisms
Coleman J (1988) Am J Sociol 0.01 8 life, forms, mechanisms, empirical, actors
Willer D (1997) Soc Forces 0.01 3 existing, yet, group, review, theories

memory, processes, collective, problem, concept, relational, public, ethnic, structures, ways

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Dimaggio P (1997) Annu Rev Sociol 0.35 7 processes, cultural, categories, past, public
Granovetter M (1973) Am J Sociol 0.31 14 relations, relational, understanding, groups, processes
Emirbayer M (1994) Am J Sociol 0.28 12 concept, relational, agency, empirical, cultural
Gross N (2009) Am Sociol Rev 0.15 6 concept, critical, action, process, provide
Bearman P (1997) Am J Sociol 0.11 4 relational, relationships, offers, cultural, exchanges
Olick J (1999) Am Sociol Rev 0.10 3 cultural, framework, collective, public, historical
Halbwachs M (1992) Collective Memory 0.10 4 processes, collective, memory, events, emphasize
Abbott A (2001) Time Matters Theory 0.09 4 processes, structures, problem, important, emerging
Emirbayer M (1997) Am J Sociol 0.09 9 relational, agency, basic, others, structures
Gould R (1995) Insurgent Identities 0.09 4 processes, much, structures, life, important
Somers M (1994) Theor Soc 0.09 6 public, culture, historical, political, cultural
Wagnerpacifici R (1991) Am J Sociol 0.07 4 historical, framework, cultural, specific, collective
Zerubavel E (1996) Qualitative Sociolog 0.07 3 collective, memory, emphasize, cultural, processes
Schwartz B (1991) Am Sociol Rev 0.07 3 collective, memory, emphasize, cultural, processes
Hedstrom P (2010) Annu Rev Sociol 0.05 4 phenomenon, presuppositions, cultural, approach, either
Mohr J (1998) Annu Rev Sociol 0.04 3 vary, relationships, formal, relational, configurations
White H (1992) Identity Control 0.04 3 cultural, causal, way, multiple, emerging
Lizardo O (2006) Am Sociol Rev 0.04 3 framework, cultural, association, individuals, network
Sanchez J (1991) Islands Street Gangs 0.04 3 american, essay, lynching, concept, heavily
Tilly C (1998) Durable Inequality 0.04 6 networks, inequality, depend, better, categories
Olzak S (1989) Annu Rev Sociol 0.02 3 processes, identification, concerning, evidence, analysts
Olzak S (1992) Dynamics Ethnic Comp 0.02 4 evidence, processes, collective, direct, identification
Carley K (1991) Am Sociol Rev 0.01 3 structures, expectations, cultural, culture, critical
Mische A (1998) Soc Res 0.01 5 structures, cultural, features, expectations, local
Mccall G (1978) Identities Interacti 0.01 4 model, symbols, cultural, often, culture

global, forms, political, issues, globalization, world, power, states, challenge, itself

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Giddens A (1990) Consequences Moderni 0.43 11 forms, concept, global, understanding, suggests
Hardt M (2000) Empire 0.39 8 globalization, forms, global, political, power
Fraser N (1989) Unruly Practices Pow 0.26 8 political, gender, action, society, contemporary
Seidman S (1992) Postmodernism Social 0.17 4 contemporary, forms, knowledge, thinking, nor
Tomlinson J (1999) Globalization Cultur 0.10 4 global, concept, issues, logic, idea
Collins P (1990) Black Feminist Thoug 0.09 10 power, gender, contemporary, race, understanding
Derrida J (1978) Writing Difference 0.08 6 human, perspective, action, challenge, response
Arrighi G (1994) Long 20 Century 0.08 3 cultural, global, forms, territorial, world
Harvey D (1989) Condition Postmodern 0.07 5 capitalism, so, nature, empirical, economic
Beck U (1999) World Risk Soc 0.06 3 encounter, society, develop, globalization, multiple
Lemert C (1992) Postmodernism Social 0.05 3 forms, contemporary, combination, world, society
Guillen M (2001) Limits Convergence G 0.04 3 global, out, logic, system, represent
Rubin G (1975) Anthr Women 0.04 4 women’s, political, concept, contributions, feminist
Hirst P (1996) Globalization Questi 0.04 3 ways, globalization, global, relation, issues
Stacey J (1985) Soc Probl 0.04 3 feminist, gender, uninterested, dynamic, resistance
Derrida J (1976) Grammatology 0.04 3 human, treatment, his, neither, nature
Marcuse H (1964) 1 Dimensional Man 0.04 5 approach, whose, turns, emancipatory, argued
Seidman S (1991) Sociological Theory 0.02 5 nature, contemporary, attention, yet, issues
Meyer J (2000) Int Sociol 0.02 3 global, logic, key, system, globalization
Jameson F (1991) Postmodernism Cultur 0.02 4 cultural, culture, yet, forms, world
Marx K (1978) Marx Engels Reader 0.02 7 turn, key, critical, political, global
Denzin N (1986) Sociological Theory 0.02 3 forms, world, presents, postmodernism, essay
Best S (1991) Postmodern Theory Cr 0.02 3 forms, global, contemporary, whose, aspects
Castells M (1996) Rise Network Soc 0.01 4 forms, globalization, global, whose, contemporary
Giddens A (1987) Social Theory Modern 0.01 4 common, conceptualize, approach, postmodern, he

human, societies, empirical, evolutionary, technology, stratification, lenski, lenski’s, gerhard, subsistence

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Maryanski A (1992) Social Cage Human Na 0.48 10 evolutionary, explain, psychology, empirical, human
Lenski G (1970) Human Soc Macrolevel 0.34 5 human, societies, technology, ecological-evolutionary, gerhard
Lenski G (1966) Power Privilege Theo 0.12 11 lenski’s, gerhard, lenski, societies, stratification
Lenski G (2005) Ecological Evolution 0.11 3 human, materialist, societies, perspective, approach
Murdock G (1969) Ethnology 0.10 4 human, ecological-evolutionary, societies, technology, tests
Blumberg R (1978) Stratification Socio 0.08 5 stratification, inequality, lenski’s, his, societies
Van D (1981) Ethnic Phenomenon 0.07 5 evolutionary, explain, behavior, explanations, existing
Hawley A (1986) Human Ecology Theore 0.05 3 perspective, dynamics, general, macro-level, institutional
Hamilton W (1964) J Theor Biol 0.05 4 evolutionary, human, areas, explanations, people
Tooby J (1990) Ethol Sociobiol 0.04 5 evolutionary, psychology, human, empirical, explain
Lenski G (1994) Annu Rev Sociol 0.03 3 stratification, inequality, include, lenski, lenski’s
Buss D (1999) Evolutionary Psychol 0.03 3 evolutionary, human, second, nature, explanations
Trivers R (1972) Sexual Selection Des 0.02 4 evolutionary, psychology, human, empirical, principles
Lopreato J (1999) Crisis Sociology Nee 0.02 3 human, evolutionary, second, sexual, nature
Barash D (1982) Sociobiology Behav 0.02 3 evolutionary, human, sex, second, psychology
Cosmides L (1992) Adapted Mind Evoluti 0.01 3 evolutionary, human, principles, psychology, nature
Goldschmidt W (1959) Mans Way Preface Und 0.01 3 empirical, gerhard, lenski’s, human, ecological-evolutionary
Van D (1979) Human Family Systems 0.01 4 human, evolutionary, local, choice, explanations
Lenski G (1999) Human Soc Intro Macr 0.01 5 societies, lenski’s, advanced, ecological-evolutionary, agrarian
Chafetz J (1984) Sex Advantage 0.01 3 stratification, explain, inequality, biology, empirical
Bowlby J (1969) Attachment Loss 0.00 5 evolutionary, psychology, model, developed, explain
Nolan P (1991) Human Soc Intro Macr 0.00 3 tests, ecological-evolutionary, societies, lenski, power
Kanazawa S (2001) Soc Forces 0.00 4 human, sexual, evolutionary, sex, psychology
Trivers R (1985) Social Evolution 0.00 3 human, evolutionary, biological, second, activity
Turner J (1995) Macrodynamics Theory 0.00 4 argues, tendency, institutions, central, dynamics

explain, general, here, theories, distance, direction, behavior, black’s, form, status

Name Centrality Count Keywords
Weber M (1978) Ec Soc Outline Inter 0.37 13 concept, science, others, suggests, theories
Black D (1976) Behav Law 0.28 10 general, explain, here, distance, why
Black D (1998) Social Structure Rig 0.12 8 behavior, here, distance, direction, general
Cooney M (1998) Warriors Peacemakers 0.05 6 here, distance, direction, general, history
Senechal D (1997) Sentence Death Lynch 0.02 4 here, geometry, direction, distance, history
Delaroche R (1996) Sociol Forum 0.02 6 here, direction, distance, general, explain
Black D (1995) Law Social Inquiry 0.02 6 here, direction, distance, general, explain
Black D (1983) Am Sociol Rev 0.01 4 build, made, association, conflict, mass
Baumgartner M (1988) Moral Order Suburb 0.01 5 general, here, explain, direction, distance
Black D (1989) Sociological Justice 0.00 3 here, history, general, explain, where
Black D (2000) Sociol Theor 0.00 5 explain, here, direction, distance, general
Black D (2002) Contemp Sociol 0.00 3 direction, distance, location, cultural, space
Kanter R (1977) Men Women Corporatio 0.00 4 concludes, context, concept, existence, group
Horowitz D (2001) Deadly Ethnic Riot 0.00 3 behavior, conflicts, themselves, events, conflict
Weber M (2002) Protestant Ethic Spi 0.00 3 better, critical, weber, conception, importance
Myrdal G (1944) Am Dilemma Negro Pro 0.00 3 development, society, unscientific, concept, contemporary
Geertz C (1983) Local Knowledge Furt 0.00 3 scientific, science, ambiguities, limited, unscientific
Mann M (2005) Dark Side Democracy 0.00 3 general, explain, follows, relational, explained
Mannheim K (1936) Ideology Utopia Intr 0.00 4 concept, location, socially, scientific, here
Habermas J (1985) Theory Communicative 0.00 3 forms, defining, construction, discourse, order
Cooney M (1997) Am Sociol Rev 0.00 4 four, alternative, role, association, conflict
Luhmann N (1984) Social Systems 0.00 3 practice, out, degree, function, general

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